Driverless Vehicles and Brought/ Will Bring Legal Issues

Driverless Vehicles and Brought/ Will Bring Legal Issues

 

 

Doc. Servet Yetim

Ankara Bar Association Journal  Issue 1. 2016

 

 

 

Abstract

Autonomous Vehicles, described as an autonomous, driverless or robotic vehicle, is smart vehicles, in which the vehicle mechanics are combined with the communication technologies, uses advanced control systems, supplied with independent decision maker abilities by analysing interior of the car and environmental data. These vehicles, which made progress by successful test drivers has been made, by twelve firms, many of them are auto manufacturers, in advanced countries, first of these is targeting to introduce to market in 2018 by Google Corp., are forerunner of great transformation on the world population. As for this transformation any country of the world is not ready right now. These advancements cause gigantic transformations primary in automotive sector. Added value of electronic in autonomous vehicle has got ahead of the mechanic. This advancement will provide basis to monopolization in favour to the countries for those who are leader in software development and beside this establish smart cities.

By using autonomous vehicle, people will share some part of their secrets/ personal data with these vehicles electronic systems, the vehicles also will share these data smart traffic systems, software firms, vehicle manufacturers and local authorities under content of autonomies vehicle components. Due to driver factor will be removed, many chaos will occur on the matter of legal and criminal liability of vehicle owner, local authorities that will provide infrastructure services, manufactures of the vehicle mechanic and electronic system and software developer at the accidents that may occur. When the protecting keeping personal data, certification and determining the internet access standards, the facts of reconstructing insurance systems, requiring global jurisdiction power in solving the problems are evaluated all together, it is unavoidable result that the countries should cooperate each other for solving the problems in getting smaller world against the commercial power impositions, unfair competition and monopolization.”

 

You can reach the article from the link below:

http://www.ankarabarosu.org.tr/siteler/ankarabarosu/tekmakale/2016-1/3.pdf


For Citation :

Selin Cetin
"Driverless Vehicles and Brought/ Will Bring Legal Issues"
Hukuk & Robotik, Sunday August 6th, 2017
https://robotic.legal/en/surucusuz-araclar-ve-getirdigigetirecegi-hukuki-sorunlar/- 24/06/2021

 

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies

Superintelligence ; Paths, Dangers, Strategies

 

 

Genre: Science fiction/ Philosophy / Popular science

Author: Nick Bostrom

Publication date: July 3, 2014

Publisher: Oxford University Press

 

 

 

Nick Bostrom, born in Sweden, is a philosopher from Oxford University. He founded the Future of Humanity Institute and Impacts of Future Technology at Oxford University.

Though he published many studies, he is known by his contribution to trans-humanism. In 2003, he attracted the attention by his “Simulation Argument”.

Though he published many studies, he is known by his contributions to trans-humanism. In 2003, he attracted attention by his “Simulation Argument”.

In an interview, Bostrom said that : “We are like small children playing with a bomb”. He can be right about this subject. As, if the artificial intelligence begins to query its own creation and intended use, it’s wrong decisions can easily make it go haywire.

In his “Superintelligence”, written in 2014, he sets off from this starting point and he emphasises that artificial intelligence, which can give decisions,also must have ethic values.
It’s a pleasant book to read on the subjects of artificial intelligence and ethic.

Selin

 

See also:

http://www.nickbostrom.com/

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jun/12/nick-bostrom-artificial-intelligence-machine


For Citation :

Selin Cetin
"Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies"
Hukuk & Robotik, Saturday August 5th, 2017
https://robotic.legal/en/super-zeka/- 24/06/2021

 

Trends in the Market for the Robot Industry in 2012

Trends in the Market for the Robot Industry in 2012 Summary of Survey Results

 

July 18, 2013
Industrial Machinery Division, Manufacturing Industries Bureau,
Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

1. Market for Industrial Robots

  •  The global market for industrial robots has grown by about 60% in the last five years in monetary terms. The market size in 2011 was 8.497 billion dollars (662.8 billion yen), of which Japanese enterprises accounted for a share of 50.2%. The global market in a broad sense including electronic packaging robots was about 13.369 billion dollars (1.0428 trillion yen), of which Japanese enterprises accounted for a share of 57.3%.
  •  Although the Japanese market has decreased by about 25% in the last five years in terms of the number of robots, it has maintained its position as the world’s biggest market overall as of 2011.
  • The Chinese market has quadrupled in the last five years, growing to a size close to that of the Japanese market in terms of the number of robots.

2. Imports and Exports of Industrial Robots

  • Exports of industrial robots from Japan have increased by about 80% in the last five years due to the global market expansion of industrial robots.
  • With the rise of the Chinese market, Germany and ROK have increased exports to China more than tenfold in the last five years, and Japan has more than quadrupled such exports, anticipating fiercer competition in the Chinese market.
Reference 1 Market Size and Export Performance in Major Countries and Regions in 2006 and 2011 (More than 30 million dollars)
Reference 1 Market Size and Export Performance in Major Countries and Regions in 2006 and 2011 (More than 30 million dollars)

3. Industrial Robot Use around the World

  •  The industrial robots in operation in Japan accounted for about 48% of those in operation around the world ten years ago, but the share has declined to about 27%. In terms of the number of robots, Japan showed a decline by 54,000 (15.0%) as well. On the other hand, the percentages for ROK, China, and Germany have increased from 5.5% (41,000 robots) to 10.8% (124,000), from 0.2% (2,000) to 6.4% (74,000), and from 13.1% (99,000) to 13.6% (157,000), respectively.
  •  The number of industrial robots used per 10,000 employees in the manufacturing industry in the last nine years in Japan has remained flat, at about 340, while the numbers in ROK, China, and Germany have increased from 126 to 347, from 1 to 21, and from 172 to 261, respectively.
Reference 2: Number of Industrial Robots in Operation in Major Countries and Regions
Reference 2: Number of Industrial Robots in Operation in Major Countries and Regions

 

Reference 3: Number of Industrial Robots Used per 10,000 Employees in the Manufacturing Industry in Major Countries and Regions
Reference 3: Number of Industrial Robots Used per 10,000 Employees in the Manufacturing Industry in Major Countries and Regions

4. Industrial Demand for Industrial Robots around the World

  •  As for industrial demand for industrial robots, the automobile industry and the electrical and electronics industry account for the majority, followed by the metal and machinery industry, and the plastics and chemicals industry.
  •  Looking at the number of sales by industry in major countries and regions in 2011, China reached first place (18.8%) for the automobile industry, while Japan stood at fourth (12.2%) after Germany and the United States.As for the electrical and electronics industry, ROK overtook Japan to gain first place, with the two countries’combined share reaching 67.1% of world sales. As for the metal and machinery industry, China reached first place (17.8%).
Reference 4: Share of the Number of Sales by Manufacturing Industry in Major Countries and Regions (in 2011)
Reference 4: Share of the Number of Sales by Manufacturing Industry in Major Countries and Regions (in 2011)

5. Trends concerning Industrial Robots in the Chinese Market

  • The Chinese market for industrial robots has increased by an annual average of 41% since 2001, resulting in a 32-fold expansion in the last decade. It has already become the biggest market in the world for industrial robots for the automobile industry. For the electrical and electronics industry as well, it is expected that the use of industrial robots will increase, reflecting the rise in labor costs.
  • Looking at the countries from which China imports industrial robots, Japan ranked first overwhelmingly (70.6%) and is still on an upward trend. Although exports from China have still been low, it is necessary to keep a close watch on future movements because the number of robots exported in 2011 increased by 132% year on year.
  • The importance of the Chinese market for Japanese manufacturers of industrial robots and electronic packaging robots has increased every year. The percentage of exports to China among total exports from Japan has increased from 8.5% to 20.5% in the last four years.
Reference 5: Domestic Sales Situation of Industrial Robots in China Number of Annual Domestic Sales of Robots and Year-to-year Comparison (Unit: robot)
Reference 5: Domestic Sales Situation of Industrial Robots in China Number of Annual Domestic Sales of Robots and Year-to-year Comparison (Unit: robot)

You can reach in all of report on Japanese or English from these links:

http://www.meti.go.jp/press/2013/07/20130718002/20130718002-3.pdf

http://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2013/pdf/0718_02.pdf


For Citation :

Selin Cetin
"Trends in the Market for the Robot Industry in 2012"
Hukuk & Robotik, Thursday August 3rd, 2017
https://robotic.legal/en/english-trends-in-the-market-for-the-robot-industry-in-2012/- 24/06/2021

 

Robots, Artificial Intelligence and Law

Robots, Artificial Intelligence and Law

 

 

Genre: Study

Author: Caglar Ersoy

Publication date: March, 2017

Publisher: Onikilevha Press

 

 

 

Unfortunately, Turkish resources about robotic and law are very limited in Turkey. Recently publish this book, has a lot of general information regarding the subject. You can find conceptual discussions, EU reports, robot’s legal status and other various information.

In the preface, there is a good note from the author. “Maybe it is not possible to forecast which of our predictions will be realized for the future, but we cannot deny that the technology changes our lives in unpredictable way. Maybe, in twenty years from today, most likely we will be talking about some problems’ solutions that today we are not even aware of .”

However, due to his general overview of the topic, the content scratches the surface.. But it has a great bibliography for the interested people who can find many starting points.

I advise it for the ones in search of a Turkish resource.

Selin


For Citation :

Selin Cetin
"Robots, Artificial Intelligence and Law"
Hukuk & Robotik, Wednesday August 2nd, 2017
https://robotic.legal/en/robotlar-yapay-zeka-ve-hukuk/- 24/06/2021

 

I, Robot

I, Robot

 

Genre: Science Fiction

Author: Isaac Asimov

Publication date: December 2, 1950

Publisher: Gnome Press

 

 

American author born in Russia Isaac Asimov, especially is famous by science fiction writings. He has a lot of literary works, translated to Turkish and when the topic is robots, he is one of the first names that pops in anyone’s mind. If you search on the subject, I can say that, almost in every work you see the references to the famous three laws of robotics of his. Asimov also added a fourth, or a zeroth law, to precede the others. These laws are:

  • 0 – A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
  • 1 – A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  • 2 – A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  • 3 – A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws. (Asimov, Isaac (1950). I, Robot.)

Actually, there are so many things to say about Asimov, the perspective he brought to our attention regarding to robots, shows what a great author he is. “I, Robot”, published in English and translated to Turkish as “Ben, Robot”, contains fluent, fascinating science fiction tales. This work can change your perspective about the relationship between the humans and the robots.

I advise this book to everyone, interested in robotics.

Selin

 

 


For Citation :

Selin Cetin
"I, Robot"
Hukuk & Robotik, Wednesday August 2nd, 2017
https://robotic.legal/en/ben-robot/- 24/06/2021

 

Robotics and Culture

“Science Bob” Pflugfelder

 

ROBOTICS and CULTURE

 

There are two processes in the development of culture; in first process, human is inactive and is a receiver. He/she lives in a specific geographic area, provides his/her necessity of nourishment and shelter. This premise relation with nature, in other words, his/her information, language, attitude and his/her tangible production / consumption in regarding to his/her necessities appear as first the stage where the culture occurs. In the second stage, human leaves its receptive position and starts production, meaning; it gets involved with its surrounding as an active and active power.

Technology, in this sense, is a field that influences culture of man and be affected by its culture reciprocally. It should not be perceived just as, of tangible “things”, as technology bares also an influence on culture, on the social interactions as well as on the knowledge, belief, discourse and execution.

Cultural difference influences in dealings with robots and hence this influences areas of use in robotics. Besides, the inevitability of their use urges the changes in the culture as well

Difference in attitudes against the robots relies on something older and it is not the idea of the robot but in fact the religion.  Consequently, there is a dissidence   in the idea of robot between the Far East and the West.

In Japan, due to their animistic beliefs, people, culturally, tend to be open to the idea of robots. Animism is based on all objects having a soul, even if they are manmade. For this reason, Japanese people do not discriminate between inanimate objects and humans.1  Japan is not only a producer of technology, but also a country that works upon how humans connect with each other and their environment by present & future technology. Because of scarce natural resources, she is inclined to increase the added value on her manufactured products. The decrease in birth rate and the increase in the ageing population as well as the problems in environmental and energy issues, leads Japan to see the robots as a means to creating a better quality of life and more prosper population. So, these reasons provoked the establishment of companies concentrating on robotic technology.

In the West attitude against robots advanced differently due to the common monotheism beliefs. Monotheism dictates a belief that: at the beginning, there was only God, only God gives life, and all living things are his subjects Besides, it is also identified that idolatry is a sin. But, in Robotics, man acts as God in animating an inanimate entity. According to such a belief, creation of another type of life, inevitably, paves way to the destruction of God.2 Due to this dominant belief, the position against objects is not similar to the one in Japan. Rather, in concentrates mostly on the acceleration of manufacturing processes, development of the defense industry, increase of employment, entertainment and facilitating daily life.

Though being a pioneer in the development of robotic technologies, United States is also culturally handicapped about socially profiting the most out of the robotic technology. For this reason, researches, generally, turn towards to use of robots in military and industry.

In Europe, increasingly use of robots in production is vital to the advancement of manufacturing and employment. Besides, there are similar developments on the general industry and automotive as in United States.

Finally, culture not only effects the perception of robots, but also govern the robots’ design and area of usages. In this process, the solutions for the legal problems’ must be regulated.

Selin

 


For Citation :

Selin Cetin
"Robotics and Culture"
Hukuk & Robotik, Friday July 28th, 2017
https://robotic.legal/en/robotik-ve-kultur/- 24/06/2021

 

Fetus Rights and Robot Rights

Robot fetus by MrsNitro

 

FETUS RIGHTS and ROBOT RIGHTS

 

Technologies that qualify as a science-fiction before, are in present use today. In medical, industrial and military applications and in many other areas, their widespread usages cause more and more interaction. Because of this increasing interaction, discussions about law and ethic rise. Present law systems accept people and properties as subjects. Thanks to improving “machine learning” and “deep learning technologies”, we are faced with a new problem about artificial intelligence’s being a third subject apart from the previous two.

In Constitutional Law, “fundamental rights regulated for people”, makes an impression that robots will not have fundamental rights and freedoms. However, it should not be forgotten that, whether the robots-are human-look-a-like or not, they are machines using complicated algorithms. But, when we think about completely autonomous, learn-able, programmable with human-like emotional and moral features machines interacting with us, the idea of robot rights is makes more sense.

So, what can be the rights for an existence whose consciousness level is not yet as improved as ours? What can we accept as a foundation?
From the same point of view, fetuses can be compared to robots. Today fetuses subject to different regulations in different countries based on each country’s historical developments. Though being controversial, fetuses are accepted as living beings. And it is predicated this living being on being in the figure of a human. This carrying a human figure is the basis for its capacity to have rights as well. The identity within the Turkish Civil Law (Code) begins at healthy childbirth and ends at death.

The child obtains its “lawn capacitas” at fetus stage with its formation in uterus only on the condition that the being born alive and sound.
It doesn’t seem very realistic to find a correlation between the fetuses and the robots with artificial intelligence and with advanced autonom motions. Although the consciousness and the self-control of the artificially manmade machines are only as sophisticated as the fetuses, a fetuses’ developing into a human, gives advantages for its rights. Based on the reasons above, I believe, the rights of a fetus and a robot cannot be related.

Selin


For Citation :

Selin Cetin
"Fetus Rights and Robot Rights"
Hukuk & Robotik, Friday July 28th, 2017
https://robotic.legal/en/fetus-rights-and-robot-rights/- 24/06/2021

 

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