“We summarize a framework for the study of the implications of automation and AI on the demand for labor, wages, and employment. Our task-based framework emphasizes the displacement effect that automation creates as machines and AI replace labor in tasks that it used to perform. This displacement effect tends to reduce the demand for labor and wages. But it is counteracted by a productivity effect, resulting from the cost savings generated by automation, which increase the demand for labor in non-automated tasks. The productivity effect is complemented by additional capital accumulation and the deepening of automation (improvements of existing machinery), both of which further increase the demand for labor. These countervailing effects are incomplete. Even when they are strong, automation increases output per worker more than wages and reduce the share of labor in national income. The more powerful countervailing force against automation is the creation of new labor-intensive tasks, which reinstates labor in new activities and tends to in- crease the labor share to counterbalance the impact of automation. Our framework also highlights the constraints and imperfections that slow down the adjustment of the economy and the labor market to automation and weaken the resulting productivity gains from this transformation: a mismatch between the skill requirements of new technologies, and the possibility that automation is being introduced at an excessive rate, possibly at the expense of other productivity-enhancing technologies.”
The Singularity Is Near When Humans Transcend Biology
Author: Raymond Kurzweil
Publication Date: 2005
Ray Kurzweil is one of the foremost futuristics in the world. Forbes qualifies him as “the biggest thinking machine”. In his book “Singularity is near” originally published in 2005, he emphasizes how the improving technology affects humans’ biological structure.
In his book, it is mentioned that the speed of technological change is transforming human life, and the effects of change will get deeper. This period that is named as singularity by Kurzweil, will completelychange the concepts we rely on to make our lives meaningful.
According to Kurzweil, evolution creates a skill, then it uses this skill for developing the next step. No doubt, beginning using this technology in all areas of life, will affect also human evolution. One day technology will dominate every point of biology, including human intelligence.
I advise you to read this book which reveals the destructive effects of technology from past to now and the developments that will transform us in every way in the future, and which shows a futuristics perspective.
Privacy and Freedom of Expression In the Age of Artificial Intelligence
Article 19 & Privacy International
“Artificial Intelligence (AI) is part of our daily lives. This technology shapes how people Access information, interact with devices, share personal information, and even understand foreign languages. It also transforms how individuals and groups can be tracked and identified, and dramatically alters what kinds of information can be gleaned about people from their data.
AI has the potential to revolutionise societies in positive ways. However, as with any scientific or technological advancement, there is a real risk that the use of new tools by states or corporations will have a negative impact on human rights.
While AI impacts a plethora of rights, ARTICLE 19 and Privacy International are particularly concerned about the impact it will have on the right to privacy and the right to freedom of expression and information.
This scoping paper focuses on applications of ‘artificial narrow intelligence’: in particular, machine learning and its implications for human rights.
The aim of the paper is fourfold:
Present key technical definitions to clarify the debate;
Examine key ways in which AI impacts the right to freedom of expression and the right to privacy and outline key challenges;
Review the current landscape of AI governance, including various existing legal, technical, and corporate frameworks and industry-led AI initiatives that are relevant to freedom of expression and privacy; and
Provide initial suggestions for rights-based solutions which can be pursued by civil society organisations and other stakeholders in AI advocacy activities.
We believe that policy and technology responses in this area must:
Ensure protection of human rights, in particular the right to freedom of expression and the right to privacy;
Ensure accountability and transparency of AI;
Encourage governments to review the adequacy of any legal and policy frameworks, and regulations on AI with regard to the protection of freedom of expression and privacy;
Be informed by a holistic understanding of the impact of the technology: case studies and empirical research on the impact of AI on human rights must be collected; and
Be developed in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders, including civil society and expert networks.”